Montreal Protocol

 

The issue of ozone depletion was first discussed by the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1976. A meeting of experts on the ozone layer was convened in 1977, after which UNEP and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) set up the Coordinating Committee of the Ozone Layer (CCOL) to periodically assess ozone depletion. Initial inter-governmental negotiations for an international agreement to phase out ozone-depleting substances started in 1981 and led to the adoption of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in March 1985. The 1985 Vienna Convention encourages intergovernmental cooperation on research, systematic observation of the ozone layer, monitoring of CFC production, and the exchange of information. The Convention commits its Parties to take general measures to protect human health and the environment against human activities that modify the ozone layer. The Vienna Convention is a framework agreement and does not contain legally binding controls or targets.

 

Immediately following agreement on the Convention, work began on negotiating a Protocol to control the production and use of ozone depleting substances. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was adopted in September 1987. Following the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in late 1985, governments recognized the need for firm measures to reduce the production and consumption of a number of CFCs (CFC-11, -12, -113, -114, and -115) and several Halons (1211, 1301, 2402). The Protocol was designed so that the phase-out schedules could be revised on the basis of periodic scientific and technological assessments. Following such assessments, the Protocol was adjusted to accelerate the phase-out schedules in 1990 (London), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), 1999 (Beijing) and again in 2007 (Montreal). It has also been amended to introduce other kinds of control measures and to add new controlled substances to the treaty. The Montreal Protocol having 196 Parties is recognized as the most successful multilateral environmental agreement. A “Multilateral Fund (MLF)” was set up in London in June 1990 by the contributions of developed countries, which is well accepted as a major achievement. This fund is being used for industries of developing countries, for technical specialization in projects intended to phase out ODPs, and for innovative technologies and equipments.

 

Turkey;

became a party to the Protocol on 19 December 1991 and adopted all amendments thereof. Monitoring of all national and international works regarding the Protocol are being executed under the coordination of Ministry of Environment and Forestry performing National Focal Point position. Our country is among the most successful countries on implementation of the Protocol commitments. 

 

Regulation on control of ozone depleting substance has been published published in Offcial Gazette No: 27052 on 12 November 2008.

 

By the said Regulation,

            CFCs:

Ø      use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was phased out as zero tone by 2006. All imports, including essential uses, are banned as of 01 January 2008.

Ø      control of methyl bromide (CH3Br), having an extensive usage in agriculture, is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs.

Halons:

Ø import of halons was banned as of 01 January 2008. However, reclaimed halon is being able to use. The Halon Bank of Turkey (TÜHAB) will operate until 31 December 2011 to meet the domestic market demand.

Ø use of halons will be legal from 01 January 2012 until 31 December 2015 for only essential uses.

    

Our Country will also phase out HCFCs, as it was done for CFCs.  

HCFCs:

Ø these gases based on the amount of imports are subject to quotas since 01 January 2009

Ø these substances will be phased out in 01 January 2015 according to the calendar mentioned in the Regulation except the uses with the service purposes.

 

Additionally,

Ø producing any kind of ODSs, establishing new installations using these substances and building new facilities to increase capacity are banned from the date of entry into forece of the Regulation.

Ø  making production in areas of usage mentioned in Annex 4 of the Regulation by using CFCs, CCl4 and Methyl Chloroform, and also import of productions including those substances mentioned in Annex 5 are forbidden.

Ø imports of productions including HCFCs (R22, R141 and R142) which are mentioned in Annex 5 of the Regulation are forbidden since 01 January 2010.

Ø “Control Certificates” are prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry for imports of the ODSs.

 

 

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