Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the third Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 3) in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997. The Protocol shares the objective and institutions of the Convention. The major distinction, however, between the two agreements is the legal nature of the commitments. While the Convention required industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions, a non-binding commitment, the Protocol commits them to do so. The detailed rules for implementation of the Protocol, needed for preparing it for ratification, were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh in 2001. These rules called as “Marrakesh Accords” are then adopted by COP/MOP in 2005. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005, and as of November 2009, 191 countries and the EU is Parties to the treaty.

Following the Convention’s differentiation between Parties, reflecting especially “the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations by setting binding mitigation commitments for them. The Protocol set quantified emission limitation or reduction commitments (QELRCs), known as emission target, for Annex I Parties listed in its Annex B, which consists of 38 industrialized countries and the European Community. The Protocol also set a collective target, or a cap, for Annex B Parties to reduce their aggregate GHG emissions by 5 percent below 1990 levels in the five-year commitment period between 2008 and 2012. Annex I Parties’ individual targets are defined as assigned amount and inscribed in Annex B. These Parties may also make use of the “flexible mechanisms” introduced by the Protocol in achieving their collective emission reduction commitments.

Six greenhouse gases and the sources of emissions covered under the Kyoto Protocol are listed in Annex A of the Protocol.



Turkey, as a member of the OECD, was included in Annex-I and Annex-II of the UNFCCC together with the developed countries when it was adopted in 1992. At the COP7 held in Marrakech in 2001, the name of Turkey was removed from Annex-II of the Convention (Decision 26/CP.7) and Turkey remained as an Annex-I Party of the UNFCCC, in a position that is different than other Annex-I countries. Turkey acceded to the UNFCCC as the 189th Party on 24 May 2004.


Turkey became Party to the Kyoto Protocol on 26 August 2009, after the deposit of instrument of accession to the United Nations following the adoption of the Law[1] (No. 5836) approving Turkey’s accession to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 5 February 2009 and adoption by the Council of Ministers of the Cabinet Decree (No. 2009/14979) on 13 May 2009. As Turkey was not a Party to the UNFCCC at the time the Protocol was adopted, it was not included in the AnnexB of the Protocol which defined quantified emissions limitation or reduction commitments for Annex I parties. Therefore, Turkey does not have a quantified emissions limitation or reduction commitment in the first commitment period between the years 2008-2012 under the Protocol.



  • UNFCCC -United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
  • 26-CP.7.

  • [1] No. 5836, "Law of Evidence found appropriate us to participate in Kyoto Protocol for  in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

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